Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)

Family: Brassicaceae 

Conserved name: Cruciferae

Popular name: Mustard Family

Taxonomic Position (according to Cronquist)

 

Kingdom                     :Plantae

Division                       :Magnoliophyta

Class                            :Magnoliopsida

Subclass                      :Dilleniidae

Order                           :Capparales

Family                         :Brassicaceae

Identifying characters of the family

  1. Herb with odorous
  2. Watery juice stem
  3. Flower Cruciform
  4. Four sepals, four petals
  5. Stamen six tetradynamous
  6. Fruit siliqua

Botanical Description of the Family

Habit: Annual, biennial or perennial herbs, sometimes subshrubs or shrubs.

Stem:Stem erect, ascending or prostrate, sometimes absent.

Leaves: Leaves exstipulate, simple, entire or variously pinnately dissected, rarely trifoliolate or pinnately, bipinnately or palmately compound, petiolate or sessile

Inflorescence: Inflorescence bracteate or ebracteate racemes, corymbs or panicles, sometimes flowers solitary on long pedicels originating from axils of rosette leaves.

Flowers: Flowershypogynous, mostly actinomorphic. Sepals 4, in 2 decussate pairs, free or rarely united. Petals 4, alternate with sepals, arranged in the form of a cross (cruciform, hence the earlier family name Cruciferae). rarely rudimentary or absent.

Androecium: Stamens 6, in 2 whorls, tetradynamous, rarely in 3 pairs of unequal length, sometimes stamens 2 or 4, very rarely 8-24. filaments slender, winged or appendaged. anthersdithecal, dehiscing by longitudinal slits.

Gynoecium: Ovary superior, sessile or borne on a distinct gynophore, mostly 2-locular and with a false septum connecting 2 placentae, placentation parietal, rarely apical, ovules anatropous or campylotropous. 1 -many per locule. style 1, distinct, obsolete or absent, stigma capitate or conical, entire or 2-lobed. sometimes lobes decurrent and free or connate.

FruitFruit a capsule, siliqua or silicula, dehiscent or indehiscent, sometimes schizocarpic, nutlet-like, lomentaceous, or samaroid. segmented or not, terete, angled or flattened, parallel to septum or at a right angle to septum.

Seeds: Without endosperm.

The family Brassicaceae consists of about 350 genera and 3000 species, found mainly in temperate and warm temperate parts of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The highest concentration of species is in the areas from the periphery of the Mediterranean to Central Asia. In Bangladesh, this family is represented by 12 genera and 24 species.

 

Floral formula:       or % ♂♀ K 2+2 C4A2+4 G(2-4)

 

Floral diagram:diagramTable 1. Common cultivated crops of Brassicaceae family

 

Bangla Name English Name Scientific Name Plant parts used Usefulness
Sorisha Mustard Brassica campestris L. Seed Edible oil
Fulcopy Cauliflwer B. oleracea L.var. capitata Inflorescence vegetable
Badhacopy Cabbage B. oleracea L.var. capitata Leaf vegetable
Mulla Radish Raphanus sativus L. Root vegetable
Broccoli Broccoli B. oleracea L.var. italica Inflorescence vegetable
Salgom turnip Brassica rapa Root vegetable
Knolkhol Shoot   Stem vegetable

 

Indian mustard

Scientific name: Brassica junceaIMG_9797

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Taxonomic position (according to Cronquist)

 

Kingdom Plantae
Division Magnoliophyta
Class Magnoliopsida
Subclass Dilleniidae
Order Capparales
Family Brassicaceae
Genus Brassica
Species juncea

 

Botanical Description of Brassica juncea

 

Habit: Annual herb

Root: Tap root system, roots are branched.

Stem: Erect, branched above

Leaf: Simple, alternate

Inflorescence: Panicle

Flower: Complete, pedicillate, hermaphrodite, cruciform.

Calyx: Sepal oblong

Corolla: Petal 4, cruciform, yellow in color.

Androecium: Stamen 6, tetradynamous

Gynoecium: Ovary cylindrical, superior

Fruit: Yellow brown siliqua

Table Brassica juncea varieties developed by Oil seeds Research Center, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur, Bangladesh

Serial Number

Name of variety Developed by Growing season Average yield

(kg ha-1)

1 Agrani Oilseeds Research Centre, BARI Rabi
2 Safal Oilseeds Research Centre , BARI Rabi 1750
3 Binasarisha-3 BINA, Mymensingh Rabi 1600
4 Binasarisha-4 BINA, Mymensingh Rabi 1700
5 Binasarisha-5 BINA, Mymensingh Rabi 1500
6 Binasarisha-6 BINA, Mymensingh Rabi 1600
7 Binasarisha-7 BINA, Mymensingh Rabi 2800
8 Binasarisha-8 BINA, Mymensingh Rabi 2400
9 SAU sarisha-1 SAU, Dhaka Rabi

 

10 SAU sarisha-2 SAU, Dhaka Rabi 1750-1950

 

 

 Economic Importance

This species is one of the most important sources of seed vegetable oil, which is edible and also used in the manufacture of lubricants, grease, lacquers, varnishes, soap, resins, nylon, plastics, insect repellents, stabilizers and pharmaceuticals.

 

Mustard

Scientific name: Brassica campestris

Taxonomic position (according to Cronquist)

Kingdom         :Plantae

Division           :Magnoliophyta

Class                :Magnoliopsida

Subclass          :Dilleniidae

Order               :Capparales

Family             :Brassicaceae

Genus              :Brassica

Species            :campestris

Table mustard (Brassica campestris) varieties developed by Oil Seeds Research Center grown in Bangladesh

 

Serial Number Name of variety Developed by Growing season Average yield

(kg ha-1)

1 Agrani ORC, BARI Rabi
2 Safal ORC, BARI Rabi 1750
3 Binasarisha-3 BINA Rabi 1600
4 Binasarisha-4 BINA Rabi 1700
5 Binasarisha-5 BINA Rabi 1500
6 Binasarisha-6 BINA Rabi 1600
7 Binasarisha-7 BINA Rabi 2800
8 Binasarisha-8 BINA Rabi 2400
9 SAU sarisha-1 SAU Rabi
10 SAU sarisha-2 SAU Rabi 1750-1950

 

Cauliflower

Scientific name: Brassica oleracea var. botrytix L

Taxonomic position

 Kingdom         : Plantae

Division           : Magnoliophyta

Class                : Magnoliopsida

Subclass          : Dilleniidae

Order               : Capparales

Family             : Brassicaceae

Genus              : Brassica

Species            : B. oleracea

Botanical Description

 Root: Tap root system

Stem: Short, thick and swollen fleshy stems

Leaf: The leaves are almost sessile, glabrous covered with a layer of wax with smooth or curly edges and blue-green in color

Inflorescence: Raceme

Flower: Complete, bisexual, symmetrical

Placentation: Parietal

Fruit: Siliqua

Economic Importance

Cauliflower is very important economically. It is grown for its large, edible young inflorescence. Cauliflower heads (curds) are cooked as vegetable, sometimes cut into small pieces and used in salad mixes. This is also used in dried mixtures of soup vegetables. Cauliflower has a good nutritional value. Per 100 g fresh edible portion, cauliflower curd contains on average: water 88 g, protein 4 g, fat 0.3 g, carbohydrates 6 g, fiber 1.5 g, calcium 25 mg, potassium 325 mg, carotene 200 mg and vitamin C 40 mg. Medicinally, the seeds are diuretic, laxative and stomachic.

 

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Table Popular cauliflower varieties developed by HRC, BARI 

 

Serial Number Name of variety Developed by Growing season Average yield

(ton ha-1)

1 BARI Fulkopi-1 HRC, BARI Rabi 28-30
2 BARI Fulkopi-1 HRC, BARI Rabi 28-30

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Cabbage

Scientific name: Brassica oleracea var. capitata

English name: Cabbage, Headed Cabbage.

Local name: Badhakapi.

 

Taxonomic position

 Kingdom         :Plantae

Division           :Magnoliophyta

Class                :Magnoliopsida

Subclass          :Dilleniidae

Order               :Capparales

Family             :Brassicaceae

Genus              :Brassica

Species            :B. oleracea var. capitata

 

Botanical Description:

Habit: Binnenial flowering habit, became predominat, requiring a cool period of 2-3 months of induce flowering.

Root: Tap root system

Stem: Short, swollen

Leaf: The head is encircled by a number of  loose, basal  leaves spreading away from the head. The basal leaves are large

Inflorescence: Raceme

Flower: Complete, bisexual, flowers bisexual, tetramerous

Calyx: sepal four

Corolla: petal four, cruciform

Androecium

Gynoecium

Fruit: Siliqua

 

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Economic uses/values/harmful aspects: cabbage is mostly used as cooked or fried vegetable, sometimes pickled or preserved by steaming and drying. If is also eaten fresh in mixed salads, it contains good nutritional contents. Per 100 g freshedible portion it bears on average: water 91 g, protein 1.6 g, carbohydrates 6 g, fiber 0.8 g, calcium 55 mg, iron 0.8 mg and vitamin C 50 mg. Apart from being used as vegetable, the leaves are cooling and stomachic, and good for biliousness and skin diseases. Leaf juice is very effective in chronic coughs and bronchial asthma.

  

Table Popular cauliflower varieties developed by HRC, BARI

 

Serial Number Name of variety Developed by Growing season Average yield

(ton ha-1)

1 IPSA Badha Copi -1 BSMRAU Rabi 60-70
2 IPSA Pata Copi -1 BSMRAU Rabi 50-60
3 BARI Bandha Kopi -1 (Provati) HRC, BARI Rabi 70-75
4 BARI Bandha Kopi -2 (Agradut) HRC, BARI Rabi 65-70

  

Chinese cabbage

 Scientific name: Brassica chinensis

 

Serial Number Name of variety Developed by Growing season Average yield

(ton ha-1)

1 Chinese Cabbage HRC, BARI Rabi 50-60

  

 

 

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