Sunflower

Sunflower

Scientific name: Helienthus anus

Local/Bangla name: “Surjamukhi”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Taxonomic Position According to Cronquist System (1981)

 

Kingdom : Plantae
Division : Magnoliophyta
Class : Magnoliopsida
Subclass : Asteridae
Order : Asterales
Family            : Asterceae
Genus : Helienthus
Species : H. anus

Botanical Description of Sunflower

Habit: annual herb

Fig. A Sunflower Field

Root: Usually tap roots but roots modified into tubers.

 

 

Stem: Erect or prostate, rarely climbing, some time woody

 

Fig. A whole plant of sunflower

Leaf: Simple some time compound

Flower: Inflorescence head or capitulate

Fig. Inflorescence (Head/capitulum) of Sunflower

Involucre bract: The head or capitulum are surrounded by a whorl of bracts called the involecre thus producing a flower cluster resembling a single flower.

Pappus: Sepalsare modified into threadlike, hairy, or bristly structures, which surround the fruit and can stick to animal fur or be lifted by wind, aiding in seed dispersal.

Two types of flowers are present i.e. ray floret and disc floret

Ray floret-Present in the periphery, zygomorphic, ligulate, unisexual female flowers

Disc floret: Central position, bisexual, actinomorphic

Fig. Ray and Disc Florets of Sunflower

Calyx: Calyx is modified into pappus or scale leaf

Corolla: Petal 5 or three tubular in disc florets or ligulate in ray florets, gamopetalous,aestivation is valvate.

Ray floret-unisexual, pistillate or neuter, zygomorphic, incomplete, sessile

Calyx-modified into pappus,

Corolla:Petal 5, rarely 4, ligulate, aestivation valvate.

Androecium:Absent.

Gynoecium-Carpel2, syncarpous, monocarpellary, ovary inferior, placentation basal.

Disc floret-Bisexual, complete, actinomorphic, sessile

Calyx: Sepal converted into pappus

Corolla-Petal 5, gamopetalous, tubular, aestivation valvate.

Androecium: Stamen 5, syngenesious, epipetalous

Gynoecium: Bicarpellary,syncarpous, ovary inferior with single locule, stigma two and bifid

Economic Importance

  • Used as edible oil
  • Used as ornamental plant
  • Has medicinal virtue

Table 1. Sunflower Variety Developed by Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur, Bangladesh

Sl. No. Name of Variety Developed by Year of Release Growing Season Yield
1 Kirony(D S-1)

 

Oil Seed Research Center 1982 Rabi and Kharif 1.6-1.8 t/ha
2 BARI Surjamukhi-2

 

Oil Seed Research Center 2004 Rabi and Kharif 1.5-1.8 t/ha

BARI China badam-10

GROUNDNUT VARIETY: BARI Chinabadam-10

Main Features of the Variety

 

Developed by Bangladesh Agriculture Research Institute (BARI), Gazipur, Bangladesh
Method of development/origin
Year of release 2016
Main characteristics Plant is erect type, plant height 40-45cm, number of pods/plant 22-25,   cluster pod bearing, surface of the pod not smooth  and  vain prominent,  seeds brown in color and medium  in size,   100 seed weight 45g. Crop duration in Rabi season 140-155  days and kharf season 120–135 days. Oil content is 48-50%, this variety is tolerant to drought and diseases.
Planting season and time This variety is cultivated throughout the country in rabi and kharif season, sowing time in rabi season Mid October to Mid November  and kharf season  July to August.
Harvesting time/ripening time
Yield Yield 2.2-2.5 ; 2.0-2.2 t/ha

 

BARI Saf-1

SAFFLOWER VARIETY: BARI Saf-1

 

 

 

 

Main Features of the Variety

 

Developed by Bangladesh Agriculture Research Institute (BARI), Gazipur, Bangladesh
Method of development/origin Developed by selection from land races
Year of release 1999
Main characteristics Plants are spiny, husk of seeds are thick, drought tolerant, oil content in seed is 37-38%
Yield 1.10-1.20 (t/ha); crop duration is 100-120 days.
Resistance/tolerance Tolerant to drought stress

 

 

LINSEED VARIETY OF TISI: Nila

Main Features of the Variety

 

Developed by Bangladesh Agriculture Research Institute (BARI), Gazipur, Bangladesh
Method of development/origin Developed by selection from land races
Year of release 1988
Main characteristics Plant height 70-100 cm, seed small and flat, fruit oval shape, 1000-seed weight 3.0-3.5 g, flower color blue, crop duration 100-115 days.
Yield 0.95-1.1 t/ha
Resistance/tolerance Tolerant to drought stress

 

 

BARI  Narikel-1

COCONUT VARIETY:  BARI  Narikel-1

Main Features of the Variety

 

Developed by Bangladesh Agriculture Research Institute (BARI), Gazipur, Bangladesh
Method of development/origin Local
Year of release 1997
Main characteristics High fruit yielding tall variety, medium  sized fruit (1200-1300g), oblong in shape containing 58% oil, small seeds are oval shaped, fruit set in whole year, number of fruit in each adult plant 65-75. This variety cultivated throughout the Bangladesh.
Planting season and time June-September
Days to maturity September –November
Resistance/tolerance Tolerant to stem drop disease tolerant.

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