Family : Fabaceae
Conserved name : Leguminosae
Popular name : The Pea or Bean Family
Identifying characters of the family
- Root bears nodule
- Fruit is legume
- Presence of compound leaf
- Pistill looks like a sword
- Androecium mona/dia delphous
- Ovary monocarpellary, marginal placentation
Family-Fabaceae/The pea family
Taxonomic Position (according to Cronquist)
Identifying characters of Fabaceae (Papilionacae) family
- Herb, shrub or tree
- Presence of root nodule
- Usually trifoliate compound leaf
- Papilianaceous corolla with vexillary placentation
- Stamen 10, diadelphous (9+1)
- Fruit, a legume
The family Fabaceae consists of about 440 genera and 12,000 species, widespread in temperate and cold as well as tropical regions. In Bangladesh, this family is represented by 69 genera and 254 species.
Botanical Description of the Family
Habit: Generally annual herbs (some time twining or climbing by tendrils); but may be shrubs or trees.
Leaves: Leaves simple, digitately or pinnately compound, very rarely bi-pinnate, alternate, often stipulate, sometimes with rachis ending in a tendril.
Inflorescence: Inflorescence axillary, racimose, leaf-opposed or terminal, bracts and bracteoles usually present.
Flower: Flowers irregular, rarely regular, hermaphrodite. Sepals 5, united above the middle and beyond the disk in a campanulate or tubular calyx, with truncate, 5-toothed or 5-lobed limb, often 2 upper sepals connate into 2 lips. Petals 5, aestivation vexillary, erect or spreading, the upper (standard) outermost, free or adnate to stamens, the lower (keel) innermost, usually connate by their adjacent margins, the 2 laterals (wings) intermediate, often attached to the keel.
Androecium: Stamens inserted with petals on the disk within the calyx tube, usually 10, free, or more often diadelphous, the 9 lower connate in a sheath, the upper solitary and free.
Gynoecium: Carpel 1, free, styles simple, stigmas capitate, terminal or oblique, placentation merginal.
Fruit: Fruit usually legume, splitting along both sutures, sometimes indehiscent and separated into 1-seeded joints.
Seeds: Seeds usually exalbuminous.
Table 1. Economic Important Plants of Fabaceae Family
|Serial Number||English name||Bangla name||Botanical name||Economic Importance|
|1||Ground nut||Badam||Arachishypozea||Used as pulse, oil|
|2||Chickpea||Chola, boot||Cicer arietinum||Used as pulse|
|3||Pigeonpea||Arharaya||Cajanuscajan||Used as pulse|
|4||Soybean||Soyabean||Glycine max||Used as pulse oil and soya cake|
|5||Lentil||Masur||Lens culinaris||Used as pulse|
|6||Grass pea||Kheshari||Lathyrussativus||Used as pulse|
|7||Pea, garden pea||Motor, motor-shuti||PisumsativumL.||Used as pulse|
|8||Black gram||Mashkalai||Vigna mungo||Used as pulse|
|9||Faba bean||Barashim, bakla||Viciafaba||Used as pulse|
|10||Yard long bean||Baraboti||Vignasinensis||Used as pulse|
|11||Mung bean||Mugkalai||Vignaradiata||Used as pulse|
|12||Alfalfa||Lasan||Medicago sativa L.||Used as fodder|
|13||Sunhemp||Shon pat, Ghati||Crotolariajuncea||Used as fodder and fiber|
|14||Butterfly pea||Aparajita||Clitoriaternatea||Used as ornamental|
|15||Indigo||Nil||Indigoferaindica||Used as dye|
|17||Scarlet runner bean||Not known||Phaseoluscoccineus||vegetable|
|18||French bean||Farashi bean||Phaseolus vulgaris||Vegetable and fodder|
|19||Not known||Choto motor||Pisumarvense||Pulse and fodder|
|20||Winged bean||Kamranga shim, corolla shim||Psophocarpustetragonolobus||Vegetable and fodder|
|22||Not known||Bakful||Sesbania grandiflora||Vegetable and fodder|
|23||Yard-long bean||boroboti||Vignaunguiculata||Important pulse|
|24||Rice bean||Not known||Vignaumbellata (Thunb)||Vegetable and fodder|
|25||Bush bean||Bush bean|
|26||Fenugreek||Methi||Trigonellafoenum-graecumL.||Spices and vegetable|