Pigeon Pea

Pigeon Pea

Scientific name: Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

English names: Pigeon Pea, Red Gram, Congo Pea, Cajanus Pea

Local names: ‘Arhar’, ‘Arual’





Taxonomic Position According to Cronquist (1988)

Kingdom :Plantae
Division :Magnoliophyta
Class :Magnoliopsida
Subclass :Rosidae
Order :Fabales
Family :Fabaceae
Genus :Cajanus
Species :C. cajan

Botanical Description

Habit: An erect perennial shrub much branched.


Root: Tap root system

Stem: Pubescent.

Leaf: compound leaf, pinnately compound, trifoliate, leaflet elliptical to lanceolate, acute.


Infloresnce: a terminal panicle

Flower: zygomorphic, complete, hermaphrodite and paplinaceous.

Calyx: tubuler, sepal 5, gamosepalous

Corolla: Bright yellow in color, papilinaceous composed three types of petal viz. standard, wing and keel, aestivation vexillary.

Androecium: Stamen 10, diadelphous (9)+1.

Gynoecium: Carpel one, ovary superior, placentation marginal.

Fruit: a pod, linear oblong



Seed: rounded, compressed, non-endospermic.


Chromosome number: 2n=22, 44, 66 (Bir and Kumari, 1980)

Economic Importance: It is cultivated as a pulse crop, it is  also important medicinally. Tender leaves ate reported to be chewed in case of aphthalmia and spongy gurns of the mouth. The poultice made by seeds is used to reduce swelling and treat snakebites.




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