Scientific name: Triticum aestivum L.

 Triticum spp.

  1. Diploids (n=14)

Triticum monococcum

  1. Tetraploids (n=28):
  1. Tricum dicoccum
  2. Triticum turgidum
  • Triticum durum
  1. Triticum polonicum


  1. Hexaploid
  1. Triticum aestivum
  2. Triticum spelta
  • Triticum compactum

 Synonyms: T.hybernum, T.sativum, T. vulagare

 English names: Bread Wheat, Common Wheat.


Fig. Wheat Field

Local name: Gom.

Taxonomic Position According to Cronquist (1988)

Class: Liliopsida
Subclass: Commelinidae
Order: Poales
Genus: Triticum
Species: T. aestivum

Botanical Description of Wheat

Habit: An annual or biennial grass

wheat root

Figure: Root Anatomy of Wheat

Root: Two types of roots are found, the seminal roots and the nodal roots (adventitious or crown roots), which arise from the lower nodes of the shoot.

Stem: cylindrical, hollow internode but solid node which is called as culm. From four to seven of the most distal units have an elongated internode. The portion of the shoot with elongated internodes is the elongated stem or culm.

K1600_Wheat stem

Figure: Stem Anatomy of wheat


Internodes: The elongated distal internodes increase in length from the basal to the most distal, the peduncle.

Leaf: simple, alternate, sessile the leaf is divided into two parts leaf sheath and leaf blade. At the top of the leaf-sheath there are two small auricles sparsely fringed with hairs and short embranous ligule. The leaf blade is linear, flat, and parallel-veined. The terminal leaf is known as flag leaf.


Figure: Leaf Anatomy of Wheat

Inflorescence: Inflorescence a spike, erect but curved at maturity, mostly 5-15 cm long excluding the awns, rachis 2- 3 mm long, hairy on margin. A spikelet has a small axis known as rachilla.

Flower: Spikelets solitary, ovoid, laterally compressed, 3-5 flowered, upper most sterile, glabrous or pubescent, awned or muticous, awns when present up to 16 cm long.IMG_0661IMG_0809

Androecium: Stamens 3, anthers 1.8-2.0 mm long.

Gynoecium: Carpel one, stigma feathery, placentation is basal.

Fruit: Caryopsis oblong, 5 mm long, hairy at the apex, ventrally grooved, free within the lemma and palea.


Figure : Wheat seed

Economic Importance: Wheat is the most important cereal in the world and used for human consumption. Starch widely used for human diet, flour from soft wheat is used for manufacturing cakes, biscuits etc. Starches are also used for manufacturing alcoholic beverages and in textile industry. The straw is used for seating chairs, stuffing mattresses and leaves are used as fodder.

 Table 1. Wheat varieties developed by Wheat Research Center, BARI, Joydebpur, Bangladesh


Serial NumberName of variety Developed byYear of ReleaseOriginGrowing seasonAverage yield

(t ha-1)

1Kalyansona 1968CIMMYT, MexicoRabi2.6-3.2
2Sonora 64 1968CIMMYT, MexicoRabi1.6-2.2
3Norteno 67 1972CIMMYT, MexicoRabi2.8-3.2
4Iinia 66 1972CIMMYT, MexicoRabi2.5-3.0
5Sonalika 1973CIMMYT, MexicoRabi3.0-3.5
6Tanori 71 1974CIMMYT, MexicoRabi 2.8-3.2
7Jupateco 73 1975CIMMYT, MexicoRabi3.0-3.2
8Nuri 70 1975CIMMYT, MexicoRabi2.5-3.0
9Balaka 1979CIMMYT, MexicoRabi2.6-3.0
10Doel 1979CIMMYT, MexicoRabi2.5-3.0
11Pavon 76 1979CIMMYT, MexicoRabi3.0-3.6
12AkbarWRC, BARI1983CIMMYT, MexicoRabi3.5-4.5
13KanchanWRC, BARI1983CIMMYT, MexicoRabi3.5-4.5
14AgrahaniWRC, BARI1983CIMMYT, MexicoRabi3.5-4.0
15ProtivaWRC, BARI1993CIMMYT, MexicoRabi3.5-4.5
16BARI Gom 19 (Sourav)WRC, BARI1998CIMMYT, MexicoRabi3.5-4.5
17BARI Gom 20 (Gourab)WRC, BARI1998CIMMYT, MexicoRabi3.6-4.8
18BARI Gom 21 (Shatabdi)WRC, BARI2000CIMMYT, MexicoRabi3.6-5.0
19BARI Gom 22 (Sufi)WRC, BARI2005CIMMYT, MexicoRabi3.6-5.0
20BARI Gom -23 (Bijoy)WRC, BARI2005CIMMYT, MexicoRabi4.3-5.0
21BARI Gom 24 (Prodip)WRC, BARI2005CIMMYT, MexicoRabi4.3-5.1
22BARI Gom 25WRC, BARI2010CIMMYT, MexicoRabi3.6-5.0
23BARI Gom 26WRC, BARI2010CIMMYT, MexicoRabi3.6-5.0
24BARI Gom  27WRC, BARI2012CIMMYT, MexicoRabi4.0-5.4
25BARI Gom 28WRC, BARI 2012Rabi4.0-5.5
26BARI Gom 29WRC, BARI 2014Rabi4.0-5.0
27BARI Gom 30WRC, BARI 2014Rabi4.5-5.5
28BARI Gom 31WRC, BARI 2017Rabi4.5-5.0


BARI Gom 32WRC, BARI 2017Rabi4.6-5.0


BARI Gom 33WRC, BARI 2017Rabi4.0-5.0
 31 Ananda (BAW 18) WRC1983 Rabi 2.1-3.4
 32 Binagom 1 BINA 2016 Rabi 2.2-3.5

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