Kingdom: Plantae

Phyllum: Magnoliophyta

Class: Magnoliopsida

Order: Myrtales

Family: Combretaceae

Genus: Terminalia

Species: Terminalia belerica


Botanical Description

Habit: A deciduous tree, 30-40 m tall and 1-2 m in girth, with large spreading head and buttresses, bark thick, blackish, longitudinally fissured and cracked.



Leaves: Leaves 6-16 x 5.0-10.5 cm, a    broadly   obovate-elliptic   to   obovate-oblong,sometimes narrowly oblanceolate, papyraceous to coriaceous, spirally arranged along the branchlets or crowded at the ends of the branchlets, sometimes whorled, apex rounded or obtuse, or sometimesshortly acuminate, base rounded, obtuse or cuneate, often unequal at the base, margin entire, veins usually 6-8 pairs, rather widely spaced, petioles 3-9 cm long, at first pubescent, soon glabrescent, generally long in relation to the lamina, glands inconspicuous, usually present mid-way down the petioles.

Inflorescence: Inflorescence of axillary spikes, 3-15 cm long, rachis rufous or fulvous-appressed, pubescent, male towards the apex of the spike, the females below, bracts usually absent.

Flowers: Flowers yellowish, bud subglobose, sessile. Calyx 4-5 x 4-5 mm, shortly rusty pubescent outside, densely rusty villous at the base inside, lobes recurved, deltoid, c 1.5 mm long.

Androecium: Stamens 3.0-3.5 mm long, glabrous, anthers 0.8 mm long.

Gynoecium: Ovary ellipsoid, 1.5-5.0 mm long, style c 4 mm long, glabrous, disc densely rusty villous.

Fruits:Fruit a drupe, 2-3 x 1.5-2.5 cm, subglobose to broadly ellipsoid, very hard when dry, slightly longitudinally ridged, densely velvety pubescent.Seeds c 1.2 x 0.5cm, ellipsoid, rough.

Bahera fruit

Bohera fruit2

Economic uses: Fruits are astringent, laxative and useful in coughs, hoarseness and eye diseases. The kernel is said to be a narcotic and is used as an external application to inflamed parts.It is said to produce intoxication when eaten in excess.The wood is hard but not durable, but keeps well under water and is used for making packing cases, coffin boxes,dugouts, canoes, catamarans, shampans, grain measures, ploughs, pit-props in coal mines, turning and coopers.


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