Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)

Family: Brassicaceae 

Conserved name: Cruciferae

Popular name: Mustard Family

Taxonomic Position (according to Cronquist)


Kingdom                     :Plantae

Division                       :Magnoliophyta

Class                            :Magnoliopsida

Subclass                      :Dilleniidae

Order                           :Capparales

Family                         :Brassicaceae

Identifying characters of the family

  1. Herb with odorous
  2. Watery juice stem
  3. Flower Cruciform
  4. Four sepals, four petals
  5. Stamen six tetradynamous
  6. Fruit siliqua

Botanical Description of the Family

Habit: Annual, biennial or perennial herbs, sometimes subshrubs or shrubs.

Stem:Stem erect, ascending or prostrate, sometimes absent.

Leaves: Leaves exstipulate, simple, entire or variously pinnately dissected, rarely trifoliolate or pinnately, bipinnately or palmately compound, petiolate or sessile

Inflorescence: Inflorescence bracteate or ebracteate racemes, corymbs or panicles, sometimes flowers solitary on long pedicels originating from axils of rosette leaves.

Flowers: Flowershypogynous, mostly actinomorphic. Sepals 4, in 2 decussate pairs, free or rarely united. Petals 4, alternate with sepals, arranged in the form of a cross (cruciform, hence the earlier family name Cruciferae). rarely rudimentary or absent.

Androecium: Stamens 6, in 2 whorls, tetradynamous, rarely in 3 pairs of unequal length, sometimes stamens 2 or 4, very rarely 8-24. filaments slender, winged or appendaged. anthersdithecal, dehiscing by longitudinal slits.

Gynoecium: Ovary superior, sessile or borne on a distinct gynophore, mostly 2-locular and with a false septum connecting 2 placentae, placentation parietal, rarely apical, ovules anatropous or campylotropous. 1 -many per locule. style 1, distinct, obsolete or absent, stigma capitate or conical, entire or 2-lobed. sometimes lobes decurrent and free or connate.

FruitFruit a capsule, siliqua or silicula, dehiscent or indehiscent, sometimes schizocarpic, nutlet-like, lomentaceous, or samaroid. segmented or not, terete, angled or flattened, parallel to septum or at a right angle to septum.

Seeds: Without endosperm.

The family Brassicaceae consists of about 350 genera and 3000 species, found mainly in temperate and warm temperate parts of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The highest concentration of species is in the areas from the periphery of the Mediterranean to Central Asia. In Bangladesh, this family is represented by 12 genera and 24 species.


Floral formula:       or % ♂♀ K 2+2 C4A2+4 G(2-4)


Floral diagram:diagramTable 1. Common cultivated crops of Brassicaceae family


Bangla NameEnglish NameScientific NamePlant parts usedUsefulness
SorishaMustardBrassica campestris L.SeedEdible oil
FulcopyCauliflwerB. oleracea L.var. capitataInflorescencevegetable
BadhacopyCabbageB. oleracea L.var. capitataLeafvegetable
MullaRadishRaphanus sativus L.Rootvegetable
BroccoliBroccoliB. oleracea L.var. italicaInflorescencevegetable
SalgomturnipBrassica rapaRootvegetable
KnolkholShoot Stemvegetable


Indian mustard

Scientific name: Brassica junceaIMG_9797












Taxonomic position (according to Cronquist)




Botanical Description of Brassica juncea


Habit: Annual herb

Root: Tap root system, roots are branched.

Stem: Erect, branched above

Leaf: Simple, alternate

Inflorescence: Panicle

Flower: Complete, pedicillate, hermaphrodite, cruciform.

Calyx: Sepal oblong

Corolla: Petal 4, cruciform, yellow in color.

Androecium: Stamen 6, tetradynamous

Gynoecium: Ovary cylindrical, superior

Fruit: Yellow brown siliqua

Table Brassica juncea varieties developed by Oil seeds Research Center, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur, Bangladesh

Serial Number

Name of variety Developed byGrowing seasonAverage yield

(kg ha-1)

1AgraniOilseeds Research Centre, BARIRabi
2SafalOilseeds Research Centre , BARIRabi1750
3Binasarisha-3BINA, MymensinghRabi1600
4Binasarisha-4BINA, MymensinghRabi1700
5Binasarisha-5BINA, MymensinghRabi1500
6Binasarisha-6BINA, MymensinghRabi1600
7Binasarisha-7BINA, MymensinghRabi2800
8Binasarisha-8BINA, MymensinghRabi2400
9SAU sarisha-1SAU, DhakaRabi


10SAU sarisha-2SAU, DhakaRabi1750-1950



 Economic Importance

This species is one of the most important sources of seed vegetable oil, which is edible and also used in the manufacture of lubricants, grease, lacquers, varnishes, soap, resins, nylon, plastics, insect repellents, stabilizers and pharmaceuticals.



Scientific name: Brassica campestris

Taxonomic position (according to Cronquist)

Kingdom         :Plantae

Division           :Magnoliophyta

Class                :Magnoliopsida

Subclass          :Dilleniidae

Order               :Capparales

Family             :Brassicaceae

Genus              :Brassica

Species            :campestris

Table mustard (Brassica campestris) varieties developed by Oil Seeds Research Center grown in Bangladesh


Serial NumberName of variety Developed byGrowing seasonAverage yield

(kg ha-1)

1AgraniORC, BARIRabi
2SafalORC, BARIRabi1750
9SAU sarisha-1SAURabi
10SAU sarisha-2SAURabi1750-1950



Scientific name: Brassica oleracea var. botrytix L

Taxonomic position

 Kingdom         : Plantae

Division           : Magnoliophyta

Class                : Magnoliopsida

Subclass          : Dilleniidae

Order               : Capparales

Family             : Brassicaceae

Genus              : Brassica

Species            : B. oleracea

Botanical Description

 Root: Tap root system

Stem: Short, thick and swollen fleshy stems

Leaf: The leaves are almost sessile, glabrous covered with a layer of wax with smooth or curly edges and blue-green in color

Inflorescence: Raceme

Flower: Complete, bisexual, symmetrical

Placentation: Parietal

Fruit: Siliqua

Economic Importance

Cauliflower is very important economically. It is grown for its large, edible young inflorescence. Cauliflower heads (curds) are cooked as vegetable, sometimes cut into small pieces and used in salad mixes. This is also used in dried mixtures of soup vegetables. Cauliflower has a good nutritional value. Per 100 g fresh edible portion, cauliflower curd contains on average: water 88 g, protein 4 g, fat 0.3 g, carbohydrates 6 g, fiber 1.5 g, calcium 25 mg, potassium 325 mg, carotene 200 mg and vitamin C 40 mg. Medicinally, the seeds are diuretic, laxative and stomachic.






















Table Popular cauliflower varieties developed by HRC, BARI 


Serial NumberName of variety Developed byGrowing seasonAverage yield

(ton ha-1)

1BARI Fulkopi-1HRC, BARIRabi28-30
2BARI Fulkopi-1HRC, BARIRabi28-30

























Scientific name: Brassica oleracea var. capitata

English name: Cabbage, Headed Cabbage.

Local name: Badhakapi.


Taxonomic position

 Kingdom         :Plantae

Division           :Magnoliophyta

Class                :Magnoliopsida

Subclass          :Dilleniidae

Order               :Capparales

Family             :Brassicaceae

Genus              :Brassica

Species            :B. oleracea var. capitata


Botanical Description:

Habit: Binnenial flowering habit, became predominat, requiring a cool period of 2-3 months of induce flowering.

Root: Tap root system

Stem: Short, swollen

Leaf: The head is encircled by a number of  loose, basal  leaves spreading away from the head. The basal leaves are large

Inflorescence: Raceme

Flower: Complete, bisexual, flowers bisexual, tetramerous

Calyx: sepal four

Corolla: petal four, cruciform



Fruit: Siliqua


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Economic uses/values/harmful aspects: cabbage is mostly used as cooked or fried vegetable, sometimes pickled or preserved by steaming and drying. If is also eaten fresh in mixed salads, it contains good nutritional contents. Per 100 g freshedible portion it bears on average: water 91 g, protein 1.6 g, carbohydrates 6 g, fiber 0.8 g, calcium 55 mg, iron 0.8 mg and vitamin C 50 mg. Apart from being used as vegetable, the leaves are cooling and stomachic, and good for biliousness and skin diseases. Leaf juice is very effective in chronic coughs and bronchial asthma.


Table Popular cauliflower varieties developed by HRC, BARI


Serial NumberName of variety Developed byGrowing seasonAverage yield

(ton ha-1)

1IPSA Badha Copi -1BSMRAURabi60-70
2IPSA Pata Copi -1BSMRAURabi50-60
3BARI Bandha Kopi -1 (Provati)HRC, BARIRabi70-75
4BARI Bandha Kopi -2 (Agradut)HRC, BARIRabi65-70


Chinese cabbage

 Scientific name: Brassica chinensis


Serial NumberName of variety Developed byGrowing seasonAverage yield

(ton ha-1)

1Chinese CabbageHRC, BARIRabi50-60




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