Rice: Taxonomy, morpho-anatomy and yield perspective

M A Baset Mia
Department of Crop Botany
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University
Gazipur 1706, Bangladesh
E-mail: miabaset@bsmrau.edu.bd

Common name: Rice/Paddy

Scientific name: Oryza sativa L.

Local name/ (বাংলা নাম) : ‘Dhan’/ (ধান)

Taxonomic Position According to Cronquist (1988)

Division :Magnoliophyta
Class :Liliopsida
Order :Poales
Species: O. sativa


Botanical Description of Rice Plant

Habit: Annual herb

Root: Fibrous root system, rootlet and root hair present. The first form root is called seminal root, which is parsley branched and persist for a short time after germination. New roots are emerged soon after the destroyed of seminal root. The prop roots are arisen from the node of the above ground.

Stem: Hollow, cylindrical composed of node and internode, and called culm. Leaf and buds are arisen from the node. The tillers are arisen from the lower nodes as alternate manner.rice stem

K1600_Rice root (2)

Fig. Root Anatomy of Rice

Stem anatomy

Fig. Stem Anatomy of Rice

Leaf: simple, sessile composed of leaf sheath and leaf blade. Leaf sheath encircled the stem, and the leaf blade is flat. At the junction, a feathery structure is known as ligule and thread like structure is known as auricle. Auricles are ear-like appendages arises in pair from both sides. The terminal leaf is known as flag leaf.

Leaf anatomy

Fig. Leaf Anatomy of Rice

Inflorescence: terminal, panicle.

Rice Flower

Fig. Inflorescence of Rice


Spikelet: born on the pedicel which is morphologically a peduncle. The spikelet consists of a minute axis (rachilla) on which a single floret is borne in the axils of 2-ranked bracts. The bracts of the lower pair on the rachilla, being always sterile, are the sterile lemmas (“glumes,” “empty glumes,” “outer glumes”). The upper bracts or the flowering glumes consist of the lemma (fertile lemma) and palea. The lemma, palea, and the included flower form the floret. The filiform extension of the keel of the lemma is known as awn.


Flower: It is known as floret contains bracts lemma and palea. Flower is bisexual and zygomorphic.

Perianth: The calyx and corolla together form perianth and is known as lodicule. The lodicules are two wale-like, transparent, fleshy structures located at the base of the flower adnate to the palea.

Androecium: Stamens are six, located into two whorls, anther versatile.

Gynoecium: Carpel one, placentation basal, stigma feathery.

Fruit: Caryopsis, the rice fruit is a caryopsis in which the single seed is fused with the wall of the ripened ovary (pericarp), forming a seed like grain. The grain is the ripened ovary, with the lemma, palea, rachilla, sterile lemmas, and the awn, if present, firmly adhered to it. The lemma and palea and their associated structures such as the sterile lemmas, rachilla, and the awn whenever present constitute the hull or husk.

Rice seed: rice grain, commonly called a seed, consists of the true fruit or brown rice (caryopsis) and the hull, which encloses the brown rice. Brown rice consists mainly of the embryo and endosperm. The surface contains several thin layers of differentiated Tissues that enclose the embryo and endosperm. The palea, lemmas, and rachilla constitute the hull of indica rices.

Table 1 Rice varieties developed by BRRI, Joydebpur, Bangladesh

Sl. No.Name of variety Developed byYear of ReleaseGrowing seasonAverage yield(ton ha-1)
1BR1 (Chandina)BRRI1970Boro5.5
2BR2 (Mala)BRRI1971Boro and ausBoro 5.0; aus 4.0
3BR3 (Biplab)BRRI1973Boro, aus, amanBoro 6.5, aus-4.0, aman-4.0
4BR4 (BRRI Shail)BRRI1975Aman5.0
5BR5 (Dhulabogh)BRRI1976Aman3.0
6BR6BRRI1977Boro, ausBoro-4.5, aus-3.5
7BR7 (BRRI Balam)BRRI1977Boro, ausBoro 4.5, aus-3.5
8BR8 (Asha)BRRI1978Boro, ausBoro-6.0, aus-5.0
9BR9 (Sufala)BRRI1978Boro, ausBoro-6.0, aus-5.0
10BR10 (Pragoti)BRRI1980Aman6.5
11BR11 (Mukta)BRRI1980Aman6.5
12BR12 (Mayna)BRRI1983Boro ausBoro 5.5 aus 4.5
13BR14 (Gazi)BRRI1983Boro and ausBoro-6.0, aus-5.0
14BR15 (Mohini)BRRI1983Boro 5.5
15BR16 (Shahibalam)BRRI1983Boro, aus6.0, 5.0
16BR17 (Hashee)BRRI1985Boro6.0
17BR18 (Shajalal)BRRI1985Boro6.0
18BR19 (Mangol)BRRI1985Boro6.0
19BR20 (Nizami)BRRI1986Aus3.5
22BR23 (Dishari)BRRI1988Aman5.5
23BR24 (Rahmat)BRRI1992Aus3.5
24BR25 (Nayapajam)BRRI1992Aman4.5
26BRRI dhan27BRRI1994Aus4.0
27BRRI dhan28BRRI1994Boro5.0
28BRRI dhan29BRRI1994Boro7.5
29BRRI dhan30BRRI1994Aman5.0
30BRRI dhan31BRRI1994Aman5.0
31BRRI dhan32BRRI1994Aman5.0
32BRRI dhan33BRRI1997Aman4.5
33BRRI dhan34BRRI1997Aman3.5
34BRRI dhan35BRRI1998Boro5.0
35BRRI dhan36BRRI1998Boro5.0
36BRRI dhan37BRRI1998Aman3.5
37BRRI dhan38BRRI1998Aman3.5
38BRRI dhan39BRRI1999Aman4.5
39BRRI dhan40BRRI2003Aman4.5
40BRRI dhan41BRRI2003Aman4.5
41BRRI dhan42BRRI2004Aman3.5
42BRRI dhan43BRRI2004Boro3.5
43BRRI dhan44BRRI2005Aman6.5
44BRRI dhan45BRRI2005Boro6.5
45BRRI dhan46BRRI2007Aman4.7
46BRRI dhan47BRRI2007Boro6.0
47BRRI dhan48BRRI2008Boro5.5
48BRRI dhan49BRRI2008Aman5.5

BRRI dhan50 (Banglamoti)




50BRRI dhan51BRRI2010Aman4.0-5.0
51BRRI dhan52BRRI2010Aman4.5-5.0
52BRRI dhan53BRRI2010Aman4.5
53BRRI dhan54BRRI2010Aman4.5
54BRRI dhan55BRRI2011Boro7.0
55BRRI dhan56BRRI2011Aman5.0
56BRRI dhan57BRRI2011Aman4.0-4.5
57BRRI dhan58BRRI2012Boro7.0-7.5
58BRRI dhan59BRRI2013Boro7.1
59BRRI dhan60BRRI2013Boro6.3
60BRRI dhan61BRRI2013Aman5.0
61BRRI dhan62BRRI2013Aman (high Zinc content)3.5
62BRRI dhan63BRRI2013Boro7.0
63BRRI dhan64BRRI2014Boro6.0
64BRRI dhan65BRRI2014Aus3.5-4.0
65BRRI dhan66BRRI2014Aman4.5-5
66BRRI dhan67BRRI2014Boro3.8-7.4
67BRRI dhan68BRRI2014Boro7.3
68BRRI dhan69BRRI2014Boro7.3
69BRRI dhan70BRRI2015Aman4.8
70BRRI dhan71BRRI2015Aman5-6
71BRRI dhan72BRRI2015Aman5.7
72BRRI dhan73BRRI2015Aman4.5
73BRRI dhan74BRRI2015Boro7.1
74BRRI dhan75BRRI2016Aman4.5
75BRRI dhan76BRRI2016Aman4.5
76BRRI dhan77BRRI2016Aman4.5
77BRRI dhan78BRRI2016Aman4.5-4.7
78BRRI dhan79BRRI2016Aman5.0-5.5
79BRRI dhan80BRRI2017Aman4.5-5.0
80BRRI Hybrid dhan1BRRI2001Boro8.5
81BRRI hybrid dhan2BRRI2008Boro8.0
82BRRI hybrid dhan3BRRI2009Boro9.0
83BRRI hybrid dhan4BRRI2010Aman6.5
84BRRI hybrid dhan5BRRI2016Boro8.5-9.0
85BRRI hybrid dhan6BRRI2017Aman6.0-6.5
 86 BRRI dhan81 BRRI2017 Boro 6.0-6.5
87BRRI dhan 82BRRI2017T. Aus4-5 
88BRRI dhan 83BRRI2017B. Aus4-5 
89BRRI dhan 84BRRI2017Boro6-6.5 
90BRRI dhan 85BRRI2017Aus4-5 
91BRRI dhan 86BRRI2017Boro6-6.5
92BRRI dhan 87BRRI2018Aman6.5 
93BRRI dhan 88BRRI2018Boro7.0-8.5 
94BRRI dhan 89BRRI2018Boro8.0-9.7
95BRRI dhan 90BRRI2019T Aman4.5-5.0 
96BRRI dhan 91BRRI2019B Aman3.0-3.5 
97BRRI dhan 92BRRI2019T Aman5-6 t/ha
98BRRI dhan 93BRRI2019T Aman5-6 
99BRRI dhan 94

BRRI2019T Aman5-6 
100BRRI dhan 95BRRI2019T Aman5-6 
101BRRI dhan 96BRRI2020Boro6.98 
102BRRI dhan 97BRRI2020Boro4.9-7.0
103BRRI dhan 98BRRI2020Aus5.4-7.1
104BRRI dhan 99BRRI2020Boro5.4-7.1
105BRRI dhan 100BRRI2020Boro7.7-8.8
106BRRI dhan 101BRRI2021Boro8.99
107BRRI dhan 102BRRI2022Boro8.1

Table 2. Rice varieties developed by BINA, Mymensingh, Bangladesh

Sl. No.Name of variety Year of ReleaseGrowing seasonGrowth duration (days)

Yield (ton ha-1)

1Iratom-241975Boro and Aus145, 1356.5, 3.5
7Binadhan-8 2010Boro and Aman135, 1257.5, 5.5
8Binadhan-9 2012Boro1258.5
11Binadhan-12 2013Aman1304.5
12Binadhan-13 2013Aman1423.5
 18 Binadhan-19 2017 Aus- Aman 95-105 5.0-5.5
 19Binadhan-20  2017 Aman 125-1304.48 -7.18
20Binadhan- 212018Aus100-1054.5
21Binadhan- 222019Aman112-1156.1-6.5

Table 3. Rice varieties developed by BAU, BSMRAU


Serial NumberName of VarietyDeveloped byGrowing SeasonAverage Yield (ton ha-1)
1BU dhan-1BSMRAUAman4.5-5.0
2BU Aromatic hybrid dhan-1BSMRAUAman-boro5.0-5.5
3BU dhan-2BSMRAUAus, aman, boro5.0
4BAU dhan-1 (BAU -63)BAU, MymensinghBoro and Aus5.0-6.5
5BAU dhan-2BAU, MymensinghAman3.46-6.13

 Table 4. Local Rice Varieties Grown in Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশে আবাদযোগ্য স্থানীয় জাত সমূহ)

Sl. No.Name of VarietyYear of ReleasedTypeView for detail
1Panbira (DA 12)1932Aus 
2Dharial (DA 14)1936Aus 
3Dular (DA 22)1940Aus 
4Marichbati (DA 24)1941Aus 
5Hashikalmi (DA 26)1944Aman 
6Tilockachari (DA 7)1924T Aman 
7Latisail (DA 12)1934Aman 
8Nizersail (DA 25)1944Aman 
9Bashamanik (DA 31)1932Aman 
10Patnai23 (Barisal No.2)1933Aman 
11Rajasail (Barisal No.4)1945Broadcast aman View for Detail
12Gabura (DW 2)1941Broadcast aman View for Detail
13Maliabhangar1943Broadcast amanView for Detail
14Habiganj Boro II (Tupaboro)1942Broadcast aman View for Detail
15Habiganj Boro IV (Khoiaboro)1944Broadcast aman View for Detail
16Habiganj Boro VI (Pusshusail)1949Broadcast aman View detail

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