Black Gram

Black gram

Scientific name: Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper

Bangla/local name: ‘Mashkalai’

Taxonomic position According to Cronquist (1988)

Kingdom      : Plantae
Division : Magnoliophyta
Class   :Magnoliopsida
Subclass   : Rosidae
Order     : Fabales
Family : Fabacaeae
Genus  : Vigna
Species : V. mungo

Botanical Description of Black Gram

Habit: cultivated annual herb


Figure: Field View of Black gram


Figure: A Black gram plant with fruit

Root:  deep rooted tap root system.

The internal structure i.e. Anatomy of Root


Figure: Root Anatomy of Black gram

Stem: Erect to sub-erect, highly branching and hairy

The internal structure of stem i.e. Stem Anatomy


Figure: Stem Anatomy of Black gram

Leaf: alternate, compound, trifoliate, dark green, leaflets ovate

The internal structure of Leaf i.e. Leaf Anatomy


Figure: Leaf anatomy of black gram

Inflorescence: an axillary raceme

Flower: zygomorphic, complete, papilionaceous

Calyx: Sepal 5, gamosepalous

Corolla: petal 5, divided into standard, wing and keel; aestivation vexilary.

Androecium: stamen 10 (9+1) diadelphous

Gynoecium: Carpel one, style spirally twisted, ovary superior, placentation marginal.


Fruit: Pod with densely trichomed

Seed: Non-endospermic, globur usually green

Blackgram seeds

Figure: Seed of black gram

Economic Importance: It is one of the most important pulses. The dry beans are used as dal. The sprouted seeds are used as health tonic. The plant is used as green manure. The husked dried plant is a good fodder. The seeds are acrid, sweet, digestible, laxative and antipyretic.


Table 1. Black gram varieties released by Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Gazipur and Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA), Mymensingh, Bangladesh


Serial Number Name of Variety Developed by Year of release Growing season Average yield

(kg ha-1)

1 BARI Mash-1 Pulse Research Centre, Ishurdi, Pabna 1990 Rabi 1400-1500
2 BARI Mash-2 Pulse Research Centre, Ishurdi, Pabna 1990 Rabi 1400-1500
3 BARI Mash-3 Pulse Research Centre, Ishurdi, Pabna 1996 Rabi 1500-1600




 BARI Mash-4 Pulse Research Centre, Ishurdi, Pabna 2017 Rabi 1250-1440
5 Binamash-1 BINA, Mymensingh 1994 Rabi 1600




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