Groundnut / Peanut

Groundnut

Synonymy: Peanut

Local name: ‘Chinabadam’

Scientific name: Arachis hypogea L.

 

Taxonomic position According to Cronquist (1981)

Kingdom         : Plantae
Division
           : Magnoliophyta
Class                :Magnoliopsida

Subclass          : Rosidae

Order               : Fabales
Family             : Fabacaeae

Genus              : Arachis

Species            :  A. hypogea

 

Botanical Description of Groundnut

 Habit: Annual prostate to erect herb with usually root nodules.

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K1600_Triedhana badam. leaf.dorsal

Dorsal side of the leaf

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Ventral side of the leaf

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Root: Taproot with lateral branching.

Stem: Branched dimorphic monopodial.

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Figure : Stem Anatomy of Ground Nut

Leaf: Alternate with two opposite pairs of obovate leaflets.

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Figure: Leaf Anatomy of Ground Nut

Flower: Flowers borne on compressed spike in the axis of foliage leaves.

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Fruit: Pod oblong to cylindrical and reticulated.


Economic Importance: The nuts are eaten raw or after roasting. Most of the world crop is crushed for oil that is used mainly for cooking. The oilcake is rich in protein and used to produce edible groundnut flour. The oilcake is used as good manure. Per 100 g edible portions contains 30 g protein, 47 g fat and 12 g carbohydrate. It is also a good source of vitamins B and E.

Leguminosae (4)

Table 1: Peanut varieties developed by Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) and Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA)

Serial Number Name of Variety Developed by Growing season Average yield (t/ha)
1 Maijchar badam(Dhaka-1) Oilseed Research Centre, BARI Rabi and Kharif 1.6-1.8
2 Basanti badam(DG-2) Oilseed Research Centre, BARI Rabi and Kharif 2.0-2.2
3 Tridanabadam (DM-1) Oilseed Research Centre, BARI Rabi and Kharif 2.2-2.4
4 Zinga  badam (ACC-12) Oilseed Research Centre, BARI Rabi and Kharif 2.4-2.6
5 BARI Chinabadam-5 Oilseed Research Centre, BARI Rabi and Kharif 2.7-3.0
6 BARI Chinabadam-6 Oilseed Research Centre, BARI Rabi and Kharif 2.8-3.0
7 BARI Chinabadam-7 Oilseed Research Centre, BARI Rabi and Kharif 2.8-3.0
8 BARI Chinabadam-8 Oilseed Research, BARI Centre, BARI Rabi and Kharif 2.8-3.0
9 BARI Chinabadam-9 Oilseed Research, BARI Centre, BARI Rabi and Kharif 2.8-3.0
9 BARI Chinabadam-10 Oil Seed Research, BARI Centre, BARI Rabi and Kharif 2.2-2.5

2.0-2.2

10 Binachinabadam-1 BINA, Mymensingh Rabi and Kharif 2.8
11 Binachinabadam-2 BINA, Mymensingh Rabi and Kharif 2.5
12 Binachinabadam-3 BINA, Mymensingh Rabi and Kharif 2.0
13 Binachinabadam-4 BINA, Mymensingh Rabi and Kharif 2.6
14 Binachinabadam-5 BINA, Mymensingh Rabi and Kharif 2.3
15 Binachinabadam-6 BINA, Mymensingh Rabi and Kharif 2.9