Scientific nameArtocarpus heterophyllus Lam.

Bangla/Local name: ‘Kathal’








Taxonomic Position According to Cronquist (1988)

Kingdom: Plantae

Phylum: Magnoliophyta

Class: Magnoliopsida

Order: Rosales

Family: Moraceae

Genus: Artocarpus

Species: A. heterophyllus



Identifying characteristics of the family

General Characteristics

  • Big tree
  • Latex present, especially in the secondary phloem
  • Monoecious or dioecious plant
  • Infloresence spadix with bract spathe
  • Compound fruit known as sorosis

General information and distribution 

The family has 53 genera and around 1400 species of which mostly are tropical and sub-tropical.

Botanical Description

Habit: Mostly perennial tree, few are shrub, ever green. But grafted tree is smaller than tree produced from seed. Latex is present in the tissue system

Root: Tap root system

Fig. Root Anatomy of Jack Fruit

Fig. Root Anatomy of Jack Fruit

Stem: The jackfruit is an erect, evergreen tree that grows up to 30 m high and 80-200 cm in diameter. The bark is rough to somewhat scaly, dark grey to greyish brown in colour.

Jackfruit stem

Fig. Stem Anatomy of Jack fruit

 Leaf: Simple, alternate, young jackfruit leaves are lobed but they become entire when mature. The leaves are dark green and shiny in adaxial side but light green in abaxial side. The leaves are elliptical-obovate in shape and measure about 20 cm long.jackfruit. leaf. dorsal

jack fruit leaf (2)1

Fig. Leaf Anatomy of Jack fruit

Inflorescence: Spadix having the bract known as spathe.

Jackfruit flower

Fig. Inflorescence of Jack Fruit

Flower: Small, unisexual, flowers grow from the trunk on short stalks. The male flowers are located higher on the tree above the female flowers. Female flowers are larger than male flower and hang from thick, short stalks on mature wood. Flowers are hypogynous.

Perianth: Tepal four, united or free often persistent with fruit.

Androecium: Stamens four or equal to the number of tepal.

Gynoecium: There are two carpels syncarpous.

Fruit: The jackfruit is a multiple fruit that is composed of the coherence of multiple flowers. The fruit hangs from thick stalks on the trunk and main branches. The jackfruit is the largest fruit in the world; weighing from 4-40 kg.

Floral formula:

Male formula:    
male mango

Female flower:

 female mango

 Floral diagram:


Anacardiaceae Family (8) Anacardiaceae Family (6)4772_9-Best-Benefits-Of-Jackfruit-Seeds-For-Skin-Hair-And-Health

Important plants of this family

 Most of the members of this family produce fruit, timber and used as ornamental purposes. The most common members are summarized as follows:

Table 1. Economically Important plant species of Moraceae family

Bangla name English name Scientific name Uses


Kathal Jackfruit Artocarpous heterophyllus Fruit
Not known Breadfruit A. altilis Fruit
Dhaua Monkeyjack A. lakoocha Fruit
Chapalis Not known A.chaplasha Roxb. Timber
Bot Ficus Ficus bengalensis Timber
Dumur Common fig F. carica Fruit/timber
Rubber Gachh Indian rubber tree F. elastica Ornamental
Gulang Dumur Peepul F. religiosa Timber, ornamental

Table 2. Jack fruit variety developed by Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh


Sl.No. Name of variety Developed by Year of Release Growing season Yield


1 FTIP-BAU Khatal-1 BAU 2010 May-August 20-40


BARI Kathal-1 BARI 2009 May-August 11800 fruits/ha
3 BARI Kathal-2 BARI 2011 May-August 38-58

Economic Importance

 Fruit is edible, trunk is used as furniture. Used as Vegetable: When fruit is young, the pulp is used to cook as vegetable. When fruit is ripe, it can be eaten fresh or made into various delicacies, chutney, jam, jelly and paste. It can also be preserved as candies, by mixing with sugar, honey, or syrup.

Timber & Products classified as medium hardwood, resistant to termite attack, fungal and bacterial decay, the timber is considered superior to teak, though not as hard as teak, for furniture, construction.