Sugarcane

Sugarcane

Scientific name: Saccharum officinarum L.

Bangla/ Local names: Aakh, Ikkhu, Gendari, Hussel, Kajuli, Kusa, Kushiar.

 

 

 

 

Taxonomic position According to Cronquist (1981)

Kingdom Plantae
Division Magnoliophyta
Class Liliopsida
Subclass Commelinidae
Order Poales
Family Poaceae
Genus Saccharum
Species S. officinarum

sugar cane

Sugarcane

Fig. Field View of Sugarcane

Sugar cane stem twig

Sugar cane leaf

Botanical Description of Sugarcane

 

Habit: Sugarcane is a perennial herb.

Root: Root system develops into an extensive system with thin and thick roots. The thin roots occur in the top layer of the soil, up to 50cm deep, spreading about 2 m from the plant. Thicker roots may grow downwards up to 6 m deep

Stem:  The stems, 3-5 m tall and 1.3-5 cm thick, are divided into a number of joints.

Scane stem

Fig. Stem of Sugarcane

Leaf: The alternating leaves arise from the nodes, in two rows on either side of the stem. They consist of a leaf-sheath and elongated leaf blade with a thick mid-rib up to 2 m long and 4-10 cm wide with sharp margins; Leaf blades linear-lanceolate, 100-200 x 3-6 cm, apex, acuminate, base narrow, glabrous, margin scabrous, Ligules very short, membranous, ciliate, sheaths glabrous or pubescent, older ones deciduous, often auricled with prominent auricular hairs, collar large, prominent, glabrous or appressed pubescent.

Inflorescence: The inflorescence is an open-branched panicle in which there are some hundreds of tiny spikelets. Lower florets empty, upper florets bisexual.

sugarcane-253203_640

Flower: Flowers are bisexual. However, flowering is considered as an undesirable characteristic in commercial cane crop because it stops vegetative growth and development of sugar-storage capacity.

Perianth: Lodicules usually eciliate, rarely with a few cilia, variable in shape, ranging from cuneate-bilobed to crenate-truncate.

Androecium: Anthers 1.0-1.8 mm long, yellow.

Gynoecium: Stigmas purple.

Fruit: The fruit is a small caryopsis, about 1 mm long

Chromosome number: 2n=80

Economic Importance: Sugarcane is an economically important sugar crop. The main product of sugarcane is sucrose, which accumulates in the stalk internodes. Sucrose, extracted and purified in specialized mill factories, is used as raw material in human food industries or is fermented to produce ethanol.

Sugar and molasses are produced from stem juice of the plant. Stem juice is useful in fatigue thirst, leprosy, intestinal troubles, anemia and diarrhea. Industrial ethyl alcohol is manufactured from molasses. Molasses is widely used as a stock feed. Cane tops are fed to livestock. Bagasse, the fibrous residue left after the extraction of the juice from the sugarcane, is used in manufacture of paper, cardboard, fiber board and wall board.

 

Table 1. Sugarcane varieties developed by Bangladesh Sugarcane Research Institute, Ishurdi, Pabna, Bangladesh

Serial Number Name of variety Year of Release Growing season Average yield

(t ha-1)

1 Isd 1/53 (Nota Kushir) 1967 Year round 74
2 Isd 2/54 1967 Year round 79
3 Isd 3/54 1974 Year round 67
4 Isd 4/55 Year round 86.45
5 Isd 6/66 Year round 66
6 Isd 7/57 Year round 61
7 Isd 8/57 Year round 61
8 Isd 10/54 Year round 74
9 Isd 11/58 Year round 66
10 Isd 12/58 Year round 70
11 Isd 13/58 Year round 81
12 Isd 14/60 Year round 81
13 Isd 15 1974 Year round 86
14 Isd 16 1981 Year round 86
15 Isd 17 Year round 85
16 L-Jaba C 1982 Year round 79
17 Isd 18 1988 Year round 85
18 Isd 19 1988 Year round 83
19 Isd 20 1990 Year round 72
20 Isd 21 1990 Year round 71
21 Isd 22 1993 Year round 65
22 Isd 24 1993 Year round 49
23 Isd 25 1993 Year round 61
24 Isd 26 1995 Year round 59
25 Isd 27 1995 Year round 69
26 Isd 28 1996 Year round 78
27 Isd 29 1998 Year round 70
28 Isd 30 2000 Year round 77
29 Isd 31 2000 Year round 90
30 Isd 32 2002 Year round 104
31 Isd 33 2002 Year round 98
32 Isd 34 2002 Year round 93
33 Isd 35 2003 Year round 94
34 Isd 36 2003 Year round 88
35 Isd 37 2006 Year round 91
36 Isd 38 2007 Year round 113
37 Isd 39 2009 Year round 103
38 Isd 40 2009 Year round 110
39 BSRI Akh 41 2012 Year round 139.55
40 BSRI Akh 42 2014 Year round 169.57
41 BSRI Akh 43 2014 Year round 118.36
42 BSRI Akh 44 2014 Year round 106.91
43 BSRI Akh 45 Year round 105
44 BSRI Akh 46 Year round 103

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