Jute

Jute

Bangla /Local name: ‘Pat’

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Taxonomic Position According to Cronquist (1981)

Kingdom         : Plantae

Division           :Magnoliophyta

Class               : Magnoliopsida

Order               : Malvales

Family             : Tiliaceae

Identifying Characters of Tiliacea Family

  • Shrub or herb
  • Simple stipulated leaves
  • Numerous free stamen
  • Presence of mucilage substance
  • Placentation is axile
  • Fruit capsule

Botanical Description of the Family

Habit: These are generally trees or shrubs and sometimes herbs.

Root: Tap root system, branched.

Leaves: Leaves simple, petiolated, stipulated

Inflorescence: Cymose and often complex

Flower: Regular, bisexual, hypogynous, pentamerous

Calyx: sepal 5, poly or gamosepalous, aestivation valvate

Corolla: Petal 5, polypetalous, aestivation imbricate

Androecium: Stamens are many, polyadelphous

Gynoecium: This is syncarpous, 2-5 carpel, ovary superior, style is simple, and the stigma capitates or lobed

Fruit: Capsule

Floral formula:                   K(5) A∞ G (2-5)


Floral diagram:dia

 Table 1. Important plants with economic importance

Bangla name English name Botanical name Plant parts used Usefulness
Deshi pat Deshi Jute Corchorus capsularis stem fiber
Tusha pat Tusa Jute C olitorius Stem fiber
Tilia Tilia Tilia vulgaris  Shoot  Medicinal
Falsa Grewia Grewia asiatica  Fruit  Edible fruit
Dhamani  Not known Grewia tiliaefolia  Fruit  Edible fruit
Jangli pat  Wild Jute Corchorus aestuans  leaf  Medicinal
 

 Two species of jute are cultivated namely Corchorus capsularis L. and C. olitorius L.

 Table 2. Differences between  Corchorus capsularis and C.olitorius

Corchorus capsularis C. olitorius

 

Shorter than C olitorius plant Taller  than Corchorus capsularis
Leaves are dark green Leaves are light green
Leaf is bitter in taste Sweet/bitterless in taste
Fruits are round Fruits are elongated
Seeds are dark color Seeds are bluish green in color
Fiber is white in color Fiber is golden in color
Both upland and lowland culture Mostly upland culture

image4

Figure: White jute fruit

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Figure: Fruit of Tussa Jute

image2

Figure: Seed of White Jute

image5

Figure: Seed of Tussa Jute

 

White Jute

Scientific name: Corchorus capsularis L.

Bangla/local name: Deshi pat

Taxonomic Position (According to Cronquist)

Kingdom         : Plantae

Division           : Magnoliophyta

Class               : Magnoliopsida

Order              : Malvales

Family             : Tiliaceae

Genus              : Corchorus

Species            : capsularis

Fig. Jute field

Fig. Jute field

 

Distribution: India and Sri Lanka and most of the tropical countries. In Bangladesh, it is cultivated throughout the country

Botanical Description of White Jute

Habit: Annual herb

Root: Tap root system

Stem: Erect, glabrous, woody, solid, strong phloem fiber present in the stem

Leaf: Simple, alternate, lanceolate, margin of the lamina is serrated.

 

 

Fig. Leaf of C. capsularis

Fig. Leaf of C. capsularis

Inflorescence: Axillary cyme

Flower: Actinomorphic, pedicilate, hermaphrodite

IMG_0241

Calyx: Sepal 5, polysepalous, aestivation valvate

Corolla: Petal 5, polypetalous, aestivation twisted

Androecium: Stamen many, free, present in many whorls.

Gynoecium: Carpel three, syncarpous, ovary superior, placentation axile

Fruit: capsule

Chromosome number: 2n=8, 14, 16, 28 (Kumar and Subramaniam, 1986). 

Economic Importance: Jute fiber is obtained from the secondary phloem of the plant.The infusion of leaves is used as a popular domestic  medicine for disorder of the liver and is of great value in alleviating the symptoms of burning hands and feet.

 

 

Fig. Anatomy of Jute Stem

Fig. Anatomy of Jute Stem (C. capsularis)

Fig. Anatomy of Jute Stem

Fig. Anatomy of Jute Root (C. capsularis)

 

Tossa Jute 

Scientific name: Corchorus olitorius L.

English name: Tossa Jute

Bangla/local name: Tosha Pat; Lalita Pat, Deo-pat 

Taxonomic Position (According to Cronquist)

Kingdom         : Plantae

Division           :Magnoliophyta

Class               : Magnoliopsida

Order               : Malvales

Family             : Tiliaceae

Genus             : Corchorus

Species            : olitorius

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Distribution: India, China, Myanmar, Pakistan, Indo-China, Australia and the Philippines. In Bangladesh, it is cultivated all over the country.

Botanical Description  of Tossa Jute

Habit: Annual herb 30-250 cm tall

Jute tussa

Root: Tap root system

Stem: Erect, glabrous, woody, solid, strong phloem fiber present in the stem

Leaf: Simple, alternate, lanceolate, margin of the lamina is serrated. Leaf base with a pair of filiform appendages.

 

Fruit of C. olitorius

Fig. Fruit of C. olitorius

Fig. Leaf of C. olitorius

Fig. Leaf of C. olitorius

Inflorescence: Axillary cyme

Flower: Actinomorphic, pedicilate, hermaphrodite

Calyx: Sepal 5, polysepalous, aestivation valvate

Corolla: Petal 5, polypetalous, aestivation twisted.

Androecium: Stamen many, free, present in many whorls.

Gynoecium: Carpel three, syncarpous, ovary superior, placentation axile

Fruit: capsule

Chromosome number: 2n=14 (Khatoon and Ali, 1993) 

 Economic Importance: Jute fiber is obtained from the secondary phloem of the plant. The infusion of leaves is used as a popular domestic  medicine for disorder of the liver and is of great value in alleviating the symptoms of burning hands and feet. The infusion is also used as a bitter tonic high and also prescribed to treat dysentery, skin diseases and disorder of the digestive system.

Chromosome number: 2n=27, 36 (Fedorov, 1969) 

Table 3. Common cultivated jute varieties developed by BJRI and BINA 

Serial Number Name of variety Developed by Growing season Average yield

(t ha-1)

1 Chinsura Green BJRI Kharif 2.03
2 O-5 BJRI Kharif 2.13
3 BJRI Tossa-1 BJRI Kharif 4.25
4 BJRI Tossa-2 BJRI Kharif 4.52
5 BJRI Tossa-3 BJRI Kharif 4.52
6 BJRI Tossa-4 BJRI Kharif 4.81
7 BJRI Tossa-5 BJRI Kharif 4.52
8 Atompat-38 BINA Kharif 2.8
9 Binadeshipat-2 BINA Kharif 3.29
10 Binapatshak-1 BINA Kharif 3.5
CVL-1 BINA Kharif
11 Kakya Bombai BJRI Kharif 1.82
12 R-85 BJRI Kharif 1.85
13 D-154 BJRI Kharif 1.85
14 D-386 BJRI Kharif 1.8
15 Funduk BJRI Kharif 1.68
16 C-1 BJRI Kharif 2.09
17 C-2 BJRI Kharif 1.97
18 C-3 BJRI Kharif 1.89
19 C-4 BJRI Kharif 1.56
20 C-5 BJRI Kharif 1.56
21 BJRI Deshi-1 BJRI Kharif 4.89
22 BJRI Deshi-2 BJRI Kharif 5.16
22 BJRI Deshi-3 (CVE-3) BJRI Kharif 4.52
23 BJRI Deshi-4 (CC-45) BJRI Kharif 5.16
24 Chatti BJRI Kharif 2.75
25 BJRI Deshi-6 (BJC-83) BJRI Kharif 4.89
26 BJRI Deshi-7 (BJC-2142) BJRI Kharif 4.89

 Economic Importance

jute-farmers2indexsl-05jute

Product from Jute

Fig. Product from JuteFig. Product from jute

 

Product from Jute

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