Wheat

Wheat

Scientific name: Triticum aestivum L.

 Triticum spp.

  1. Diploids (n=14)

Triticum monococcum

  1. Tetraploids (n=28):
  1. Tricum dicoccum
  2. Triticum turgidum
  • Triticum durum
  1. Triticum polonicum

 

  1. Hexaploid
  1. Triticum aestivum
  2. Triticum spelta
  • Triticum compactum

 Synonyms: T.hybernum, T.sativum, T. vulagare

 English names: Bread Wheat, Common Wheat.

IMG_0475

Fig. Wheat Field

Local name: Gom.

Taxonomic Position According to Cronquist (1988)

Kingdom :Plantae
Division :Magnoliophyta
Class : Liliopsida
Subclass : Commelinidae
Order : Poales
Family :Poaceae
Genus : Triticum
Species : T. aestivum

 

Botanical Description of Wheat

Habit: An annual or biennial grass

wheat root

Figure: Root Anatomy of Wheat

Root: Two types of roots are found, the seminal roots and the nodal roots (adventitious or crown roots), which arise from the lower nodes of the shoot.

Stem: cylindrical, hollow internode but solid node which is called as culm. From four to seven of the most distal units have an elongated internode. The portion of the shoot with elongated internodes is the elongated stem or culm.

K1600_Wheat stem

Figure: Stem Anatomy of wheat

IMG_0660

Internodes: The elongated distal internodes increase in length from the basal to the most distal, the peduncle.

Leaf: simple, alternate, sessile the leaf is divided into two parts leaf sheath and leaf blade. At the top of the leaf-sheath there are two small auricles sparsely fringed with hairs and short embranous ligule. The leaf blade is linear, flat, and parallel-veined. The terminal leaf is known as flag leaf.

leaf

Figure: Leaf Anatomy of Wheat

Inflorescence: Inflorescence a spike, erect but curved at maturity, mostly 5-15 cm long excluding the awns, rachis 2- 3 mm long, hairy on margin. A spikelet has a small axis known as rachilla.

Flower: Spikelets solitary, ovoid, laterally compressed, 3-5 flowered, upper most sterile, glabrous or pubescent, awned or muticous, awns when present up to 16 cm long.IMG_0661IMG_0809

Androecium: Stamens 3, anthers 1.8-2.0 mm long.

Gynoecium: Carpel one, stigma feathery, placentation is basal.

Fruit: Caryopsis oblong, 5 mm long, hairy at the apex, ventrally grooved, free within the lemmas and paleas.

index

Figure : Wheat seed

Economic Importance: Wheat is the most important cereal in the world and used for human consumption. Starch widely used for human diet, flour from soft wheat is used for manufacturing cakes, biscuits etc. Starches are also used for manufacturing alcoholic beverages and in textile industry. The straw is used for seating chairs, stuffing mattresses and leaves are used as fodder.

 Table 1. Wheat varieties developed by Wheat Research Center, BARI, Joydebpur, Bangladesh

 

Serial Number Name of variety Developed by Year of Release Origin Growing season Average yield

(t ha-1)

1 Kalyansona   1968 CIMMYT, Mexico Rabi 2.6-3.2
2 Sonora 64   1968 CIMMYT, Mexico Rabi 1.6-2.2
3 Norteno 67   1972 CIMMYT, Mexico Rabi 2.8-3.2
4 Iinia 66   1972 CIMMYT, Mexico Rabi 2.5-3.0
5 Sonalika   1973 CIMMYT, Mexico Rabi 3.0-3.5
6 Tanori 71   1974 CIMMYT, Mexico Rabi  2.8-3.2
7 Jupateco 73   1975 CIMMYT, Mexico Rabi 3.0-3.2
8 Nuri 70   1975 CIMMYT, Mexico Rabi 2.5-3.0
9 Balaka   1979 CIMMYT, Mexico Rabi 2.6-3.0
10 Doel   1979 CIMMYT, Mexico Rabi 2.5-3.0
11 Pavon 76   1979 CIMMYT, Mexico Rabi 3.0-3.6
12 Akbar WRC, BARI 1983 CIMMYT, Mexico Rabi 3.5-4.5
13 Kanchan WRC, BARI 1983 CIMMYT, Mexico Rabi 3.5-4.5
14 Agrahani WRC, BARI 1983 CIMMYT, Mexico Rabi 3.5-4.0
15 Protiva WRC, BARI 1993 CIMMYT, Mexico Rabi 3.5-4.5
16 BARI Gom 19 (Sourav) WRC, BARI 1998 CIMMYT, Mexico Rabi 3.5-4.5
17 BARI Gom 20 (Gourab) WRC, BARI 1998 CIMMYT, Mexico Rabi 3.6-4.8
18 BARI Gom 21 (Shatabdi) WRC, BARI 2000 CIMMYT, Mexico Rabi 3.6-5.0
19 BARI Gom 22 (Sufi) WRC, BARI 2005 CIMMYT, Mexico Rabi 3.6-5.0
20 BARI Gom -23 (Bijoy) WRC, BARI 2005 CIMMYT, Mexico Rabi 4.3-5.0
21 BARI Gom 24 (Prodip) WRC, BARI 2005 CIMMYT, Mexico Rabi 4.3-5.1
22 BARI Gom 25 WRC, BARI 2010 CIMMYT, Mexico Rabi 3.6-5.0
23 BARI Gom 26 WRC, BARI 2010 CIMMYT, Mexico Rabi 3.6-5.0
24 BARI Gom  27 WRC, BARI 2012 CIMMYT, Mexico Rabi 4.0-5.4
25 BARI Gom 28 WRC, BARI  2012 Rabi 4.0-5.5
26 BARI Gom 29 WRC, BARI  2014 Rabi 4.0-5.0
27 BARI Gom 30 WRC, BARI  2014 Rabi 4.5-5.5
28 BARI Gom 31 WRC, BARI  2017 Rabi 4.5-5.0
 

29

BARI Gom 32 WRC, BARI  2017 Rabi 4.6-5.0
 

30

BARI Gom 33 WRC, BARI  2017 Rabi 4.0-5.0
 31  Ananda (BAW 18)  WRC 1983  Rabi  2.1-3.4
 32  Binagom 1  BINA  2016  Rabi  2.2-3.5

 

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