Rice

Rice

Scientific name: Oryza sativa L.

Local name: ‘Dhan’

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Taxonomic Position According to Cronquist (1988)

Kingdom :Plantae
Division :Magnoliophyta
Class :Liliopsida
Subclass :Commelinidae
Order :Poales
Family :Poaceae
Genus :Oryza
Species : O. sativaIMG_7943

BR71

Fig. BRRI Dhan 71

External morphology of rice plant

Habit: Annual herb

Root: Fibrous root system, rootlet and root hair present. The first form root is called seminal root, which is parsley branched and persist for a short time after germination. New roots are emerged soon after the destroyed of seminal root. The prop roots are arisen from the node of the above ground.

Stem: Hollow, cylindrical composed of node and internode, and called culm. Leaf and buds are arisen from the node. The tillers are arisen from the lower nodes as alternate manner.rice stem

K1600_Rice root (2)

Fig. Root Anatomy of Rice

Stem anatomy

Fig. Stem Anatomy of Rice

Leaf: simple, sessile composed of leaf sheath and leaf blade. Leaf sheath encircled the stem, and the leaf blade is flat. At the junction, a feathery structure is known as ligule and thread like structure is known as auricle. Auricles are ear-like appendages arises in pair from both sides. The terminal leaf is known as flag leaf.

Leaf anatomy

Fig. Leaf Anatomy of Rice

Inflorescence: terminal, panicle.

Rice Flower

Fig. Inflorescence of Rice

IMG_7979

Spikelet: born on the pedicel which is morphologically a peduncle. The spikelet consists of a minute axis (rachilla) on which a single floret is borne in the axils of 2-ranked bracts. The bracts of the lower pair on the rachilla, being always sterile, are the sterile lemmas (“glumes,” “empty glumes,” “outer glumes”). The upper bracts or the flowering glumes consist of the lemma (fertile lemma) and palea. The lemma, palea, and the included flower form the floret. The filiform extension of the keel of the lemma is known as awn.

PanicleDSC03537

Flower: It is known as floret contains bracts lemma and palea. Flower is bisexual and zygomorphic.

F6.large

Perianth: The calyx and corolla together form perianth and is known as lodicule. The lodicules are two wale-like, transparent, fleshy structures located at the base of the flower adnate to the palea.

Androecium: Stamens are six, located into two whorls, anther versatile.

Gynoecium: Carpel one, placentation basal, stigma feathery.

Fruit: Caryopsis, the rice fruit is a caryopsis in which the single seed is fused with the wall of the ripened ovary (pericarp), forming a seed like grain. The grain is the ripened ovary, with the lemma, palea, rachilla, sterile lemmas, and the awn, if present, firmly adhered to it. The lemma and palea and their associated structures such as the sterile lemmas, rachilla, and the awn whenever present constitute the hull or husk.

Rice seed: rice grain, commonly called a seed, consists of the true fruit or brown rice (caryopsis) and the hull, which encloses the brown rice. Brown rice consists mainly of the embryo and endosperm. The surface contains several thin layers of differentiated Tissues that enclose the embryo and endosperm. The palea, lemmas, and rachilla constitute the hull of indica rices.

Table 1 Rice varieties developed by BRRI, Joydebpur, Bangladesh

 

Serial Number Name of variety Developed by Year of Release Growing season Average yield

(ton ha-1)

1 BR1 (Chandina) BRRI 1970 Boro 5.5
2 BR2 (Mala) BRRI 1971 Boro and aus Boro 5.0; aus 4.0
3 BR3 (Biplab) BRRI 1973 Boro, aus, aman Boro 6.5, aus-4.0, aman-4.0
4 BR4 (BRRI Shail) BRRI 1975 Aman 5.0
5 BR5 (Dhulabogh) BRRI 1976 Aman 3.0
6 BR6 BRRI 1977 Boro, aus Boro-4.5, aus-3.5
7 BR7 (BRRI Balam) BRRI 1977 Boro, aus Boro 4.5, aus-3.5
8 BR8 (Asha) BRRI 1978 Boro, aus Boro-6.0, aus-5.0
9 BR9 (Sufala) BRRI 1978 Boro, aus Boro-6.0, aus-5.0
10 BR10 (Pragoti) BRRI 1980 Boro 6.5
11 BR11 (Mukta) BRRI 1980 Aman 6.5
12 BR12 (Mayna) BRRI 1983 Boro 5.5
13 BR14 (Gazi) BRRI 1983 Boro Boro-6.0, aus-5.0
14 BR15 (Mohini) BRRI 1983 Boro 5.5
15 BR16 (Shahibalam) BRRI 1983 Boro, aus 6.0, 5.0
16 BR17 (Hashee) BRRI 1985 Boro 6.0
17 BR18 (Shajalal) BRRI 1985 Boro 6.0
18 BR19 (Mangol) BRRI 1985 Boro 6.0
19 BR20 (Nizami) BRRI 1986 Aus 3.5
20 BR21(Niamot) BRRI 1986 Aus 3.0
21 BR22(Kiron) BRRI 1988 Aman 5.0
22 BR23 (Dishari) BRRI 1988 Aman 5.5
23 BR24 (Rahmat) BRRI 1992 Aus 3.0
24 BR25 (Nayapajam) BRRI 1992 Aman 4.5
25 BR26(Sraboni) BRRI 1993 Aus, Boro Boro-4.0
26 BRRI dhan27 BRRI 1994 Aus 4.0
27 BRRI dhan28 BRRI 1994 Boro 6.0
28 BRRI dhan29 BRRI 1994 Boro 7.5
29 BRRI dhan30 BRRI 1994 Aman 5.0
30 BRRI dhan31 BRRI 1994 Aman 5.0
31 BRRI dhan32 BRRI 1994 Aman 5.0
32 BRRI dhan33 BRRI 1997 Aman 4.5
33 BRRI dhan34 BRRI 1997 Aman 3.5
34 BRRI dhan35 BRRI 1998 Boro 5.0
35 BRRI dhan36 BRRI 1998 Boro 5.0
36 BRRI dhan37 BRRI 1998 Aman 3.5
37 BRRI dhan38 BRRI 1998 Aman 3.5
38 BRRI dhan39 BRRI 1999 Aman 4.5
39 BRRI dhan40 BRRI 2003 Aman 4.5
40 BRRI dhan41 BRRI 2003 Aman 4.5
41 BRRI dhan42 BRRI 2004 Aman 3.5
42 BRRI dhan43 BRRI 2004 Boro 3.5
43 BRRI dhan44 BRRI 2005 Aman 6.5
44 BRRI dhan45 BRRI 2005 Boro 6.5
45 BRRI dhan46 BRRI 2007 Aman 4.7
46 BRRI dhan47 BRRI 2007 Boro 6.0
47 BRRI dhan48 BRRI 2008 Boro 5.5
48 BRRI dhan49 BRRI 2008 Aman 5.5
49 BRRI dhan50

(Banglamoti)

BRRI 2008 Boro 6.0
50 BRRI dhan51 BRRI 2010 Aman 4.0
51 BRRI dhan52 BRRI 2010 Aman 4.5
52 BRRI dhan53 BRRI 2010 Aman 4.5
53 BRRI dhan54 BRRI 2010 Aman 5.5
54 BRRI dhan55 BRRI 2011 Boro 7.0
55 BRRI dhan56 BRRI 2011 Aman 5.0
56 BRRI dhan57 BRRI 2011 Aman 4.5
57 BRRI dhan58 BRRI 2012 Boro 7.2
58 BRRI dhan59 BRRI 2013 Boro 7.1
59 BRRI dhan60 BRRI 2013 Boro 6.3
60 BRRI dhan61 BRRI 2013 Aman 5.0
61 BRRI dhan62 BRRI 2013 Aman(high Zinc) 3.5
62 BRRI dhan63 BRRI 2013 Boro 7.0
63 BRRI dhan64 BRRI 2014 Boro 6.0
64 BRRI dhan65 BRRI 2014 Aus 3.5-4.0
65 BRRI dhan66 BRRI 2014 Aman 4.5-5
66 BRRI dhan67 BRRI 2014 Boro 3.8-7.4
67 BRRI dhan68 BRRI 2014 Boro 7.3
68 BRRI dhan69 BRRI 2014 Boro 7.3
69 BRRI dhan70 BRRI 2015 Aman 4.8
70 BRRI dhan71 BRRI 2015 Aman 5-6
71 BRRI dhan72 BRRI 2015 Aman 5.7
72 BRRI dhan73 BRRI 2015 Aman 4.5
73 BRRI dhan74 BRRI 2015 Boro 7.1
74 BRRI dhan75 BRRI 2016 Aman 4.5
75 BRRI dhan76 BRRI 2016 Aman 4.5
76 BRRI dhan77 BRRI 2016 Aman 4.5
77 BRRI dhan78 BRRI 2016 Aman 4.5-4.7
78 BRRI dhan79 BRRI 2016 Aman 5.0-5.5
79 BRRI dhan80 BRRI 2017 Aman 4.5-5.0
80 BRRI Hybrid dhan1 BRRI 2001 Boro 8.5
81 BRRI hybrid dhan2 BRRI 2008 Boro 8.0
82 BRRI hybrid dhan3 BRRI 2009 Boro 9.0
83 BRRI hybrid dhan4 BRRI 2010 Aman 6.5
84 BRRI hybrid dhan5 BRRI 2016 Boro 8.5-9.0
85 BRRI hybrid dhan6 BRRI 2017 Aman 6.0-6.5
 86  BRRI dhan81  BRRI 2017  Boro  6.0-6.5
87 BRRI dhan 82

 

BRRI 2017 T. Aus 4-5 t/ha
88 BRRI dhan 83

 

BRRI 2017 B. Aus 4-5 t/ha
89 BRRI dhan 84

 

BRRI 2017 Boro 6-6.5 t/ha
90 BRRI dhan 85

 

BRRI 2017 Aus 4-5 t/ha
91 BRRI dhan 86

 

BRRI 2017 Boro 6-6.5 t/ha
92 BRRI dhan 87

 

BRRI 2018 Aman 6.5 t/ha
93 BRRI dhan 88

 

BRRI 2018 Boro 7.0-8.5 t/ha
94 BRRI dhan 89

 

BRRI 2018 Boro 8.0-9.7 t/ha

Table 2. Rice varieties developed by BINA, Mymensingh, Bangladesh

 

Serial Number Name of variety Year of Release Growing season Growth duration

(days)

Average yield

(ton ha-1)

1 Iratom24 1975 Boro and Aus 145, 135 6.5, 3.5
2 Binasail 1987 Aman 140 4.2
3 Binadhan4 1998 Aman 135 5.0
4 Binadhan5 1998 Boro 150 7.0
5 Binadhan6 1998 Boro 160 7.5
6 Binadhan7 2007 Boro 120 7.0
7 Binadhan8  2010 Boro and Aman 135, 125 7.5, 5.5
8 Binadhan9  2012 Boro 125 8.5
9 Binadhan10 2012 Boro 130 7.0
10 Binadhan11 2013 Aman 120 5.5
11 Binadhan12  2013 Aman 130 4.5
12 Binadhan13  2013 Aman 142 3.5
13 Binadhan14 2013 Boro 130 6.85
14 Binadhan15 2014 Aman 125 4.8
15 Binadhan16 2014 Aman 100-108 5.5
16 Binadhan17 2015 Aman 112-118 7.0
17 Binadhan18 2016 Boro 148-153 7.25
 18  Binadhan19  2017  Aus- Aman  95-105  5.0-5.5
 19 Binadhan20   2017  Aman  125-130 4.48 -7.18 t/ha

 

Table 3. Rice varieties developed by BAU, BSMRAU

  

Serial Number Name of Variety Developed by Growing Season Average Yield

(ton ha-1)

1 BU dhan1 BSMRAU Aman 4.5-5.0
2 BU Aromatic hybrid dhan1

 

BSMRAU Aman-boro 5.0-5.5
3 BU dhan2 BSMRAU Aus, aman, boro 5.0
4 BAU Dhan1 (BAU 63) BAU Boro and Aus 6.42
5 BAU Dhan2 BAU Boro and Aus 5.45

 Table 3. Local Rice Varieties Grown in Bangladesh

 

Sl. No. Name of Variety Year of Released Type View for detail

 

1 Panbira (DA 12)

 

1932 Aus
2 Dharial (DA 14)

 

1936 Aus
3 Dular (DA 22)

 

1940 Aus
4 Marichbati (DA 24)

 

1941 Aus
5 Hashikalmi (DA 26)

 

1944 Aman
6 Tilockachari (DA 7)

 

1924 T Aman
7 Latisail (DA 12)

 

1934 Aman
8 Nizersail (DA 25)

 

1944 Aman
9 Bashamanik (DA 31)

 

1932 Aman
10 Patnai23 (Barisal No.2)

 

1933 Aman
11 Rajasail (Barisal No.4)

 

1945 Broadcast aman  View for Detail
12 Gabura (DW 2)

 

1941 Broadcast aman  View for Detail
13 Maliabhangar 1943 Broadcast aman View for Detail

 

14 Habiganj Boro II (Tupaboro)

 

1942 Broadcast aman  View for Detail
15 Habiganj Boro IV (Khoiaboro)

 

1944 Broadcast aman  View for Detail
16 Habiganj Boro VI (Pusshusail) 1949 Broadcast aman  View detail

 

 

 BSMARAU Released Rice Variety

 

 Picture26Picture27

 

Quashi Hybrid Dhan 1

quashi 1aquashi1c

quashi 1quashi 1b

Quashi Hybrid Dhan 2

Quashi2bQuasi2ab

Quashi2cQuashi 2d

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